The United Democratic Movement "Solidarity" (UDD "Solidarity", "Solidarity" movement) - is Russia's socio-political movement. The movement declares its intention to unite people who share the values of democracy, human rights, rule of law, and are critical of the existing power.
The movement was founded at the end of 2008. Its founders were such well-known public and political figures as Boris Nemtsov (1959-2015), Garry Kasparov, Ilya Yashin, Vladimir Bukovsky.
The "Solidarity" included members of many opposition groups as private people: FMG, former ATP RPDU, "Apple", the participants of the youth movement "Oborona" ("Defense"), "We", "Change" and members of a number of other less-known organizations; the movement actually emerged and has been developing for a long time as a coalition of Russian democratic forces.
The movement is part of the non-systemic, independent opposition, consistently speaking out against the current authoritarian regime in Russia. From the creation of "Solidarity", they have set it as their goal to unite Russian democrats, to formulate a coherent alternative to the development of Russia and contribute to the steady change in the country's political regime, personified by Putin.
The movement was never officially registered. The "Solidarity" as such is not a part of any political party, remaining a separate entity.
The "Solidarity" movement has a Charter, governing bodies, regional offices. A citizen of the Russian Federation who has reached 18 years of age and who accepts the statute and program and shares the goals and objectives of the Movement can become a member of the "Solidarity" movement.
In April 2013, four areas in which "Solidarity" conducts its activity were outlined in the Resolution of the IV Congress of "Solidarity" on the purposes and tasks of the movement:
- Release of political prisoners,
- Peaceful street protests,
- Socioeducational activity,
- Electoral campaigns.
The movement does not have one leader, the leadership is collective.
The name "Solidarity" appeals to the successful experience of a Polish protest movement of the 80s, when the "Solidarity" trade union became the major political force opposing the current Polish regime.
The logo of the movement is a stylized "C" in the form of an orange flag with the figures of people, below the picture there is the inscription "The United Democratic Movement "Solidarity". Flags with one of the drafts of movement's logo were used during the first mass rally of "Solidarity" in Moscow on 21 February 2009 for the first time.
The delegates of the founding congress of the "Solidarity" declared the refusal to cooperate with the current regime as the main political principle of the party.
The supreme body of the "Solidarity" movement is the congress, assembled by the Federal Political Council (FPS) at least every 2 years. The first (founding) Congress of "Solidarity" was held on December 12-13, 2008.
The Congress elects the members of the Federal Political Council. As of April 18, 2015 the FPS consisted of 27 people:
Vitaliy Averin, Kirill Artyukhov, Evgeniy Baburin, Alexandr Baturin, Alexei Gorinov, Igor Gukovskiy, Sergey Davidis, Ildar Isangulov, Vladimir Kara-Murza (jr.), Tatyana Kotlyar, Sergey Kuzin, Leonid Martynyuk, Pavel Mironov, Nadezhda Mityushkina Ilya Mishchenko, Oleg Orlov, Alexander Podrabinek, Vadim Prokhorov, Alexander Ryklin, Igor Savin, Dmitry Semenov, Igor Toporkov Natalia Fateev, Peter Tsar'kov, Michael Schneider, Denis Yudin, Ilya Yashin.
The Responsible Secretary of the FPS is Michael Schneider.
The Federal Political Council forms the Bureau of FSP for a faster settlement. As of April 18, 2015, the Bureau of the FSP of "Solidarity" consisted of 11 people:
Sergei Davidis, Vladimir Kara-Murza (Jr.), Leonid Martynyuk, Nadezhda Mityushkina Ilya Mishchenko, Oleg Orlov, Vadim Prokhorov, Alexander Ryklin, Igor Savin, Peter Tsar'kov, Ilya Yashin.
The Executive Director of the Movement is currently Nadezhda Mityushkina.
From 2008 to 2013 Garry Kasparov was a member of the Bureau of the FPS (forced out of the country).
From 2008 to 2015, Boris Nemtsov was a member of the Bureau of the FPS (killed in front of the Kremlin on February 27, 2015).
Activities in 2008 - 2016
On December 12, 2008 the constituent congress of the "Solidarity" took place. The congress was attended by over 200 delegates - these were members of "Yabloko" ("Apple"), FMG, RPDU, former ATP youth movement "Oborona" ("Defense"), "We", "Change" and other organizations.
On the first day, the Congress officially adopted the name of the movement and the solidarity anthem - Viktor Tsoi's song "Мы ждём перемен" ("We are waiting for changes").
In July 2009, the text of the Bureau's appeal on the situation in Georgia appeared in the media, in which the Russian authorities were accused of trying to unleash the aggression against Georgia and which was calling on the military not to execute the orders of the commanders.
In May 2010 at a meeting of the Federal Political Council its intention to become a political party was announced; however, this intention was realized later.
On June 14, 2010, Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov presented their report "Putin. Results. 10 years". The report was published with a circulation of 1 million copies and is distributed by activists at rallies, pickets, at subway stations, and so on. The report is also available on the website Putin. Results.
On September 16, 2010 the establishment of the Coalition "For Russia without arbitrariness and corruption" was announced. The "Solidarity" was represented by Boris Nemtsov.
On December 11, 2010 the second Congress of the "Solidarity" in Moscow was held.
After the Congress, a session of the newly elected Federal Political Council was held. There new members of the Bureau of the FPS were elected: Garry Kasparov, Ilya Yashin, Vadim Prokhorov, Alexander Ryklin, Andrei Piontkovsky, Lev Ponomarev, Olga Kurnosova, Boris Nemtsov, Sergei Davidis, Denis Bilunov, Mark Feigin.
The "Solidarity" hosted the III Congress on April 23, 2011.
The meeting on December 5, 2011 was the starting point for a mass protest activity of 2011-2012. (including the rallies on Bolotnaya Square, Academician Sakharov Prospect, and others.), in the organization of which the "Solidarity" played a key role. Subsequently, the date of the first meeting on December 5, 2011 became the name for the "Party of 5th December."
On December 13, 2011, a congress of the coalition "For Russia without arbitrariness and corruption" was held in which the People's Freedom Party (Parnas) was established. Besides the "Solidarity", the RPDU of Mikhail Kasyanov, Vladimir Ryzhkov's Republican Party and Democratic Choice of Vladimir Milov were involved in the creation of the new political party.
In 2013, the largest coordinated street actions, in which the "Solidarity" took part were: rally "For Freedom!" on Bolotnaya Square on May 6, 2013, "March against the executioners" on June 12, 2013, and march for the freedom of prisoners of Bolotnaya on October 27, 2013.
The IV Congress of the movement, which adopted a Resolution on the aims and objectives of the movement, took place on April 7, 2013.
At the same time, during the congress it became known that Garry Kasparov left the movement. He explained his decision with the disagreement with the conversion of the UDD "Solidarity" from a site to combine various democratic forces into an "appendage of the party RPR-Parnas".
In 2014, the largest coordinated street actions, in the organization of which the "Solidarity" played a key role were as follows: March for the freedom of prisoners of Bolotnaya on 2 February 2014, "Peace March" on March 15, 2014, a rally "March of Truth" on April 13, 2014, "Peace March" on September 21, 2014.
On February 27, 2015, Boris Nemtsov was shot in Moscow at the Bolshoi Moscow River bridge.
On March 1, 2015, a mourning political rally in memory of Boris Nemtsov was held in the center of Moscow (earlier a march "SPRING" had been agreed upon on the outskirts of the city).
Some time later, the participants of "Solidarity" and civil society activists began to maintain the people's memorial to Boris Nemtsov at the Greater Moscow River bridge, updating and keeping in order flowers, portraits, candles and so on.; in particular, the participants of the movement has been on duty every Saturday and Sunday (till present time).
On April 18, 2015, the V Congress of the "Solidarity" took place, on which the new composition of the Federal Political Council was elected.
The Congress of the movement voted for the support and participation of the "Solidarity" in creating a democratic coalition (which included the Parnas, the Progress Party, the Party of December 5, the Democratic Choice, the Libertarian Party of Russia).
In May 2015, Ilya Yashin and other colleagues of the killed Boris Nemtsov presented the report "Putin. War ", written with his materials, which tells about the Russian-Ukrainian conflict: the annexation of Crimea, the death of Russian soldiers in the east of Ukraine.
The "Solidarity" regularly takes part in actions of solidarity with political prisoners.
On October 17, 2015, the "Solidarity" organized and held a rally "NO WAR" in Moscow dedicated to the deployment of Russian military campaign in Syria.