The combination of letters
The predecessor of the Association (and then the party) "Yabloko" (Apple) - "Block: Yavlinsky - Boldyrev - Lukin" was established on October 16, 1993, by three personal founders (Grigory Yavlinsky, Yuri Boldyrev, Vladimir Lukin) and the three political parties: the Republican Party of the Russian Federation (Vladimir Lysenko, Vyacheslav Shostakovskii, Igor Yakovenko), Social democratic party of the Russian Federation (Anatoly Rollins) and the party of Russian Christian democratic Union - New democracy (Valery Borshchev, Vitaliy Savitsky). Epicenter played a significant role in the creation of the unit (peer structure of G. Yavlinsky, Mikhail Zadornov, Alexei Mikhailov and Sergei Ivanenko) and the Institute for Humanitarian and Political Studies (IGPI - an independent expert center headed by Vyacheslav Igrunov and Sergei Mitrokhin).
The founders of the block had a long and painful discussion about how to call it. The working title was "New unit" and the most original version suggested that the employee IGPI Nikolai Vinnik - "Put a cross in the box opposite." As a result, the unit was called after the names of the three leaders. Nicknamed the "YABLOKO" block (the first letters of its leaders’ names) by journalists, and after the election to the State Duma adopted it as the official name of the Duma faction.
Yu. Boldyrev first was listed number two on the list of block candidates to the State Duma, but then chose not to enter the list and, supported by the block, was elected to the Federation Council of St. Petersburg.
RHDS-ND, which has officially entered (after some hesitation and discussion at the political council) the block "Yavlinsky - Boldyrev - Lukin", nevertheless distributed their candidates between "Apple" and the "Choice of Russia" (PL), one co-chairman of the party (Valery Borschev), ran from the "Apple", and the other two co-chairs (Vitaly Savitsky and Gleb Yakunin) - from BP. Some Republicans and Social Democrats also ran from CR.
The main motive of the election block campaign - politics should be done with clean hands. Yavlinsky criticized the "shock therapy", a privatization without de-monopolization, Yu. Boldyrev (dismissed at the time from Yeltsin's administration after he started to investigate the financial activities of the government of Moscow) - the corruption and the authoritarian project of the Constitution, V. Lukin - and the lack of independence of the external policy of the Russian leadership.
The leaders of the unit, especially in the early days of the campaign, opposed themselves to "Choice of Russia", considering the use of violence against political opponents unacceptable. In one of their pre-election videos, Stalin, Hitler and Gaidar appeared sequentially on the screen, with the voice-over saying: "We've already seen that".
Since February 1994, some deputies, faction staffers and block candidates entering the list of 1993, created a framework of support to Yavlinsky's block in the regions. In some regions, there were two, three, or even more organizations competing for the position of the local branch of the block. In late 1994, Yavlinsky took the process of party building under his personal control and held the founding conference of first just the Moscow's, and then - the all-Russian association "Yabloko". Earlier created Moscow's and regional structures were faced with a choice: to dissolve itself in favor of the "Yabloko" or enter it as collective members.
In the First Duma
In December 12, 1993 bloc "Yavlinsky - Boldyrev - Lukin" received 4,233,219 votes in the elections (7.86%) and 20 seats in the federal district. Another block of 7 candidates was elected by the majority voting system in the territorial districts. In "Yabloko" faction in the State Duma of the first convocation there were 29 deputies.
Yu. Boldyrev was elected to the Council of the Federation of the first convocation, left the list of candidates to the Duma, but remained a member of the block and a member of the Council of the block. The deputy of the Federation Council Ivan Indinok claimed his support of the block. SF deputies from the Nizhny Novgorod Region Boris Nemtsov and Yevgeny Krestyaninov cooperated with Yavlinsky.
On approval on January 17, 1994, the Coalition faction list "Yabloko" gained the position of Chairmen of the Budget, Tax, Banking and Finance Committee (Mikhail Zadornov) and Foreign Affairs Committee (Lukin).
Faction refused to sign the Agreement on Social Accord, considering it a "paper not only useless but harmful." At the signing ceremony the Chair, in the absence of Yavlinsky, it was taken by Vladimir Lysenko. He signed the contract on behalf of RPRF, although the faction asked him not to do so in a context that could be construed as signing on behalf of the faction.
The faction had consistently voted against the 1994 drafted state budget at all stages of consideration.
On October 27, 1994, Grigory Yavlinsky, in his statement on behalf of the "Yabloko" faction, called the raising of the question of confidence in the government a "political stunt".
"Consideration of the government without the consideration of a president is useless during the current Constitution". "Why change the government while maintaining everything that has recently embodied President Yeltsin?" "Democracy in Russia can be constructed without Yeltsin." Instead of resignation of the Government, the fraction proposed to make amends to the Constitution "which will allow a greater degree of power supply under the control of society and carry out the 1995 presidential election." Faction did not fully vote on the question of confidence in the government.
In early 1995, the all-Russian public association "Yabloko" was created on the basis of the faction.
The faction voted against the draft budget of 1995.
On June 21, 1995, in the discussion of non-confidence to the government Yavlinsky confirmed the previous opinion of the faction that the real change of policy is only possible when making the impeachment of the President, which is unrealistic. At the same time, he called on to vote for confidence in the Government only in order to show that the Duma is against the civil war in the Caucasus. June 21 voted for distrust of 25, and on July 1 - 18 out of 27 members of the faction.
In the Second Duma
In September 1995, from the union of "Apple" came Yu. Boldyrev, disagreed with the proposed fraction of the Law "On Production Sharing". Declarations were adopted, the election platform and economic program "Reforms for the majority."
Mr. Grigory Yavlinsky, Mr. Vladimir Lukin, and Mrs. Tatiana Yarygina became the leaders of the Yabloko federal list in the elections to the State Duma of the second convocation. Mr. Mikhail Yuryev, a businessman who financed the election campaign of the Yabloko, was added to the passing part of the list.
On December 17, 1995, "Yabloko" has collected 4,767,384 or 6.89% of votes, finishing at a 4th place and receiving a new composition of the State Duma of the 31 mandates under the proportional system, plus 14 seats in single-mandate constituencies. 46 deputies entered the "Apple" faction in the 2nd convocation of the State Duma.
In accordance with the "package agreement", "Yabloko" was given the role of one of the deputy chairmen of the Duma (Mikhail Yuryev), 4 Chairmen of the Committee: Committee on International Affairs (Lukin); The Committee on Budget, Taxes, Banks and Finance (Mikhail Zadornov); The Environmental Committee (Zlotnikova Tamara); Committee on Natural Resources and the Environment (Alexei Mikhailov).
March 14, 1996, when the Duma Council included the issue of cancellation of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet Decision on Denunciation of the Union Treaty in the agenda, Grigory Yavlinsky entered into urgent talks with two other presidential candidates - Deputies Svyatoslav Fedorov and Alexander Lebed, which resulted in a joint statement with sharp condemnation of actions of "a number of Duma communist factions." In The Statement Zyuganov is called "accomplices of Boris Yeltsin to ratify the Belovezhskaya agreements" and the assertion that both are not worthy to qualify for the post of president of Russia.
In August 1996, before the discussion in the Duma about the candidacy of Viktor Chernomyrdin for the post of Prime Minister about half of the factions were inclined not to support the nomination. The official position of the faction, voiced from the rostrum by Vladimir Lukin (Yavlinsky was on vacation), was that, despite the negative results of the previous government activities, the president should be allowed to have such a government, as he considers necessary, and to make conclusions within 100 days of the government work.
Faction jointly voted against the adoption of the budget 1997.
While discussing in January 22, 1997, the issue of "medical impeachment" of Boris Yeltsin, faction regarded the initiative of the Communist Party and the Liberal Democratic Party as an attempt to divert attention from the fact that these factions accepted the government budget, which was making economy fall apart. The faction voted against the resolution, and its representative M. Yurev initiated an immediate vote on the bulk of the resolution, the result of which was the resolution being down voted, this time receiving two and a half times less votes.
In June 6, 1997, there appeared a divide in the fraction over the ratification of the Treaty on the Union of Russia and Belarus. Ivanenko spoke on behalf of "a significant part of the fraction" intending to abstain from voting, as "integration building, built on the sand of the illegitimate [Belorussian] Parliament can not satisfy both our nations". Lukin did not agree with the thesis of Seleznyov that "faction splited", saying that the faction has decided to vote freely, and the International Affairs Committee recommends the adoption of the law. For the ratification, 11 deputies of "Yabloko" voted, and the rest abstained.
In November 1997, in connection with the entry into government in the rank of Minister of Finance, M. Zadornov stopped his membership in the "Yabloko". In April 1998, O. Dmitrieva became Minister of Labour and Social Development and ceased to be a member of the "Yabloko" as well.
March 13, 1998, faction left the courtroom in protest against the failure of Duma to deprive Vladimir Zhirinovsky of speech for a month for pouring water on other deputies on 11 of March; faction intended to boycott the meeting until Duma Prosecutor General Office's decision on Zhirinovsky, but at the very next meeting on, 18 March 1998, came back without any preconditions.
When voting on the appointment of Sergei Kiriyenko the Prime Minister, on 10, 17 and 24 April, 1998, the faction did not support his candidacy.
On August 31 and September 7, 1998, for Viktor Chernomyrdin's prime minister candidacy none of the faction MPs voted; on 11 September 1998 43 of 44 deputies voted for the candidate Yevgeny Primakov. But "Yabloko" wasn't included into the new government, mainly because of disagreement with the communist Yuri Maslyukov taking the post of the Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs (Yavlinsky was offered the post of deputy prime minister for social affairs).
When voting on the issue of impeachment to President Yeltsin's 37 of 44 faction MPs voted for the prosecution in the outbreak of the war in Chechnya; 24 - for the prosecution in the force dissolution of the Supreme Council in 1993; 5 - in the collapse of the Soviet Union; 2 - to in weakening the country defense capabilities; 0 - in the genocide of the Russian people.
After the resignation of the Primakov's government and nomination of Sergey Stepashin for president candidacy, the faction did not make a decision on solidarity vote and members of the "Yabloko" vote at their own discretion (the majority voted for Stepashin, Yavlinsky did not participate in the vote).
After the resignation of S. Stepashin in August 1999, 18 deputies from the faction "Yabloko" (including Yavlinsky) voted for Vladimir Putin as the new prime minister, 8 deputies (including Alexei Arbatov) - against, others (including Sergei Mitrokhin) did not vote or abstained (including Sergei Ivanenko).
Presidential elections 1996
27-28 January 1996, III Congress of the "Yabloko" Public Association nominated Grigory Yavlinsky for president of Russia. Yavlinsky was supported by some opposing Boris Yeltsin DDA party leaders (Sergey Kovalev, Arkady Murashov).
In the first round of presidential elections on June 16, 1996, Yavlinsky received 5,550,752 votes, or 7.34% (fourth place after Boris Yeltsin, Zyuganov and Lebed). Before the second round, Yavlinsky spoke against Zyuganov's candidacy, but was not directly supported Boris Yeltsin, as 60% of the extraordinary congress of the association "Yabloko" felt right to vote in the second round against both candidates.
At the 5th Congress of Unions, November 30 - December 1, 1996, it was decided on the gradual transformation of the party. The new composition of the CA was elected, the number of Vice-Chairmen enlarged to three (the First Deputy Vladimir Lukin, Deputies Ivanenko and V.Igrunov).
In the third Duma. Presidential elections 2000
At the 7th Congress of "Yabloko" in August 27, 1999, they approved the list of candidates to the State Duma, where the top three were Grigory Yavlinsky, Sergei Stepashin, Vladimir Lukin. Former Prime Minister Sergei Stepashin added to "Yabloko" list the ex-Minister of Finance M. Zadornov and Minister for Nationalities Vyacheslav Mikhailov.
In the election 1999, the federal list of the "Yabloko" gained 3,955,611 votes (5.93%) and 16 seats under the proportional system. 4 single-seat district representatives of the Party entered the Duma, and a party member Peter Shelisch, who ran the elections independently. 21 deputies constituted the faction.
January 18, 2000, the faction voted against the election of the Speaker by open vote. Sergei Stepashin, nominated by a faction for the chairmanship of the Duma, withdrew his candidacy, in solidarity with the candidates of the faction "Fatherland - All Russia" (OVR) Yevgeny Primakov and the faction "Union of Right Forces' (SPS) Viktor Pokhmelkin, who had done the same in protest against "conspiracy" of the majority of the Duma in the disproportionate division of portfolios. The packet agreement on Duma committee chairmen posts distribution the "Yabloko" was not offered a single seat. Faction left the hall in full. The same evening, there was established the Coordinating Council of the three factions, who left the room - iAd, SPS and "Yabloko". Three minority fractions within the January 2000 plenary session boycotted the Duma and the Duma Council meeting.
On January 15, 2000, the Central Council of "Apple" decided to nominate Grigory Yavlinsky a candidate for president of Russia from the initiative group of citizens (but not formally from "Apple" - not to convene an expensive congress, and so that the nomination wouldn't be partisan). January 19, 2000 Yavlinsky was nominated as a presidential candidate by the initiative group of citizens led by S.Kovalev. In the presidential elections of March 26, 2000 Yavlinsky had 4,351,450 voters (5.80% - 3rd place after Putin and Zyuganov).
Following the election campaign, S. Stepashin had somewhat distanced himself from the party. April 19, 2000, on the proposal of President Vladimir Putin the Duma has appointed Stepashin as the Chairman of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation.
July 8-9, 2000, VIII Congress of the "Yabloko" took place in Moscow region. Instead of three vice-chairmen, left only one (Lukin), approved the plan change the governance structure - in addition to the CA Office provided secretaries areas of work. Approved course for long-term blocking (but not the union) with the Union of Right Forces. President Vladimir Putin given a "trial period" until the fall.
In July 2000, Nikolay Travkin changed "Yabloko" to SPS, in June 2001, Elena Mizulina did the same. In October 2001, Vyacheslav Igrunov, one of the founders of "Yabloko" left the party, accusing Yavlinsky of authoritarianism. Together with him a few leaders of its youth organization left the party. In November 2002, they created the party called "Slon". At the same time, V. Igrunov remained a member of the faction "Yabloko" up to the end of the convocation and voted on most issues in accordance with the faction line.
"Yabloko" faction voted:
- For the ratification of the START-2 treaty
- For overcoming the Federation Council veto on the law on the priority of payment of wages to the payment of taxes and fines
- For the presidential bill on the formation of the Federation Council
- For the bills on the federal intervention (removal of the chapters and the dissolution of the local authorities in case of violation of the laws)
- For the President's initiative to rename the holiday of 7th November and 12th June
- For Krasheninnikov Amendment on distribution of the law "On guarantees to the former presidents of the Russian Federation" on the ex-Soviet President as well
- For the law "On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the right to participate in a referendum of citizens of the Russian Federation" in the new edition of Alexander Veshnyakov
- For amendments to the federal constitutional law "On Referendum of the Russian Federation", prohibiting the last referendums of the powers of the Duma and the president (Sergei Popov was the only one who didn't vote)
Most of the faction supported the budgets for years 2001, 2002, and 2003.
The faction voted against:
- A law allowing the import of nuclear waste into Russia
- "Chubais" Law on Electricity
- Restoration of the obligatory initial military training in schools
- Government budget for 2004.
- Did not vote for the law "On the Minimum Wage";
- Did not take part in the vote on the Zhirinovsky's bill to raise the minimum pension to 900 rubles;
- Did not support the consolidation in the text of the Tax Code on a regular basis of benefits on VAT to the media and book publishers
- Did not support the bill on the right of regions to introduce tax incentives for federal taxes.
Election-2003: defeat. Election-2004: non-participation
X Congress of the "Yabloko" Association, 23-24 December 2001, transformed it into the "Yabloko" Russian Democratic Party. Grigory Yavlinsky elected Chairman of the party, Vladimir Lukin appointed his First Deputy, Sergei Ivanenko, Sergei Mitrokhin, Alexei Arbatov, Igor Artemyev Deputies.
September 6, 2003, XI Congress of the "Yabloko" approved the lists of candidates to the State Duma of the IV convocation. The first three were Yavlinsky, Vladimir Lukin, Igor Artemyev, the regional list for St. Petersburg was headed by human rights activist Sergei Kovalev and Alexander Bard Gorodnitsky.
On December 7, 2003, RDP "Yabloko" received with 2,609,823 votes (4.30%) on the elections to the State Duma, not having overcome the 5 percent barrier. The Duma elected four single-mandate from Apple - Mikhail Yemelyanov (EP joined the faction), Mikhail Zadornov (soon went to work in Vneshtorgbank), Sergey Popov and Galina Khovanskaya. Soon G. Hovanskaya and S. Popov were elected Vice-chairman of the party.
20-21 December 2003, XII Congress of the RDP "Yabloko" has decided not to support Putin, but also not to nominate their own presidential candidate.
St. Petersburg was one of the strong bases of Yabloko from the beginning of its existence. St. Petersburg Regional Center Party (ROC) took part in the creation of the electoral block of 1993, represented in the Petrograd Soviet and the Russian deputy housing. (Mikhail Amosov, Igor Artemyev, Dmitry Lena, Yuriy Nesterov, Sergei Popov, Alexander Shishlov and others). In 1995, the ROC has become a regional branch of the "Apple" Association.
Founded in 1993, the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg (Legislative Assembly) is composed of 50 deputies, elected until 2007 through single-mandate constituencies. 4-5 of deputies were required to create a faction.
In the Legislature of the first convocation (1994 - 1998), the future leaders of the "Yabloko" in St. Petersburg, M. Amosov and I.Artemyev, entered 1994-1995 the "Beloved City" faction (this faction made its representative Yu. Kravtsov the Speaker of the first Legislative Assembly), then, in 1996 - the "Petersburg" faction.
In June 1996, with the active support of the "Apple" deputy Mayor Vladimir Yakovlev defeated mayor Anatoly Sobchak in the second round of gubernatorial elections with a whisker, Igor Artemyev became Yakovlev's first representative. In May 2000, Artemiev was the main rival of Yakovlev in his second election; with the support of SPS and the local "Unity" he got about 15% (Yakovlev, supported by Fatherland – All Russia, the Communist Party and Vladimir Putin got 72%).
The Legislative Assembly of II convocation (1998 - 2002), "Yabloko" has originally consisted of 7 deputies, later was reduced to four (M.Amosov, Igor Artemyev, Natalia Evdokimova, Alexei Belousov), resulting in lost registration. In 2000 for a few months liberal bloc "Apple-law" existed in the Legislative Assembly.
The Legislative Assembly of III convocation (2002 - 2007) elected 4 "apple"-ists - M.Amosov, Igor Artemyev, N.Evdokimova, Andrew Black, 5 members entered the fraction, there was a united fraction "SPS + Apple", consisting of 8 members, since 2004. By the end of the convocation (2006) the fraction lost the necessary strength.
In the elections in the IV Legislative Assembly in March 2007, for the first time, carried out by the proportional system, the "Yabloko" list has not been registered.
"Yabloko" in St. Petersburg has traditionally sought good results in federal elections: in 1993 - 21.20% in the Duma and the Federation Council Y. Boldyrev, 1995 - 16.04%, and 6 of 8 single-member districts, 1999 - 11.18% and 4 of 8 single-member districts for the 1996 presidential elections Yavlinsky - 15.15%, in 2000 - 10.55%.
The leaders of the St. Petersburg "Yabloko" at the time of the elections to the State Duma and to the Legislative Assembly 2011 were Maxim Reznik (Chairman), Mikhail Amosov, Alexander Shishlov, Boris Vishnevsky.
In the Moscow City Duma, traditionally consisting of 35 deputies, "Yabloko" has been presented since 1997. (- With the support of City Hall 2 of them) in MHD II convocation in December 1997 4 Yabloko were elected.
Before the elections to Moscow City Duma of III convocation in 2001, the leaders of Fatherland, Unity, Yabloko and SPS Y. Luzhkov, Sergei Shoigu, G. Yavlinsky and Boris Nemtsov had agreed on a common list of single-mandate candidates, which had 4 candidates from Yabloko (Eugene Bunimovich, Valentina Prysyazhnyuk, Galina Khovanskaya, Vera Stepanenko) - all elected.
In September-October 2005, "Yabloko - United Democrats" regional electoral bloc, which included the SPS and the "Soldiers' Mothers of Russia" and "Green Russia" unregistered parties, was established in Moscow. On December 4, 2005, the "Yabloko - United Democrats" elections list in the Moscow City Duma scored 11.11% - the third winner, three seats, including the two seats of the "Yabloko" (Mitrokhin and E.Bunimovich), another of the Union of Right Forces (I.Novitsky, who later joined the "United Russia"faction).
Since its candidacy, and then - an MP in the Moscow City Duma, the leader of the Moscow party organization, and then the entire party Sergei Mitrokhin devotes much effort to combating "Spot buildings", and warned residents from going to court (court still decides in favor of the authorities), speaking over the tactics of "direct action" (demolition of fences, blocking construction machinery).
On July 27, 2007, all three members of the faction "Yabloko - United Democrats" in MHD with "United Russia", on the proposal of President Putin voted for the approval of the Mayor of Moscow Yuri Luzhkov for another term.
More factions. Fewer deputies
Early 2006, part of the activists of the Soldiers' Mothers Committees joined "Yabloko" in the status of a faction, headed by the Chairman of the Moscow Committee Svetlana Kuznetsova (the other part, led by the Secretary of the Union of Soldiers' Mothers Committees of Russia, Valentina Melnikova, joined the RPR). In March 2006, Alexey Yablokov's "Green Russia" Party organizing committee entered the "Yabloko" in the status of a faction as well.
10-11 June 2006, in the vicinities of Moscow the XIII Congress of the "Yabloko" party was held. Congress approved the creation of several inner-factions: "Green Russia", "Soldiers' Mothers", Human Rights Watch (Valery Borshev) and youth (Ilya Yashin) and female (Galina Mikhalev) intra-party groups. The word "united" was added in the full name of the party.
In July 2007, G. Hovanskaya changed "Yabloko" to the party "Fair Russia". The last remaining deputy of "YABLOKO" in the State Duma Sergei Popov was put forward by St. Petersburg regional conference in the federal list of the top three, but at the party congress on 15-16 September recused himself, then entered the list of "Fair Russia", afterwards became the first number in the Lipetsk region.
In 2011, there are 9 fractions in the party: "Green Russia" (Alexey Yablokov), "Soldiers' Mothers" (Svetlana Kuznetsova), Human Rights (Valery Borschev) Women's (Gender) (Galina Mikhalev), Youth (Kirill Goncharov, Alexander Gudimov, etc). Social Democratic (Anatoly Rollins), a fraction of Entrepreneurs (Tatiana Rtishchev), Pensioners fraction (Alex Borshchenko).
Regional elections 2003-2007
In 2003, Yabloko led their deputies to the People's Assembly of Ingushetia, while 3 regional election campaigns lost.
In 2004, the party held a candidate 2 of the Legislative Assembly (in the Kaluga region and in alliance with the PCA - Arkhangelsk) and could not be held in 8 of them 3 - in blocks (with the ATP, the Industrial Party, Conceptual Party "Unity").
In 2005, success was achieved with the participation of Yabloko's units - with RPJ in the Amur region - 17.7%, 1st place, with it - in the Taimyr - 21.76%, 2nd place in Moscow - an unusual block with the SPS "Yabloko - United Democrats"- 11.11%. Yabloko has lost five campaigns in the blocks with the ATP and two - on their own.
4 campaigns in spring 2006 Yabloko lost with the results between 0.65 and 4%. In autumn the party managed to register lists only in two regions — Primorye and Sverdlovsk region, in both, it received more than 2 percent.
In the elections of 11 March 2007, the party put forward lists in three regions and received 2.94 (Murmansk region) to 4.09% (Moscow region).
2007 elections and Yabloko's ideology
Yabloko determines the modern social and economic order in the country as a "semi-criminal corporate oligarchic system based on the former Soviet monopolies". In favor of the "reform in the interests of the majority." Offers secure for local budgets an additional permanent source of income. In the field of defense reform in favor of the forced transition to the contract system and does not support the ATP proposal for a transitional period during which the compulsory military service is preserved while reducing the service life. In foreign policy Yabloko as a whole is a pro-European party.
The leaders of the party "Yabloko" object when it's referred to the number of right-wing parties, and (to a lesser extent) when it is called a socialist or social-democratic party. On the X Party Congress in December 2001, Yavlinsky said that the "Yabloko" has liberal goals ("lower taxes, protection of business competition, the development of all forms of business across the country, de-monopolization, tougher competition, protection of consumer rights"), social-democratic agenda ("the new pension system, protection against poverty and the preservation of the system of education and of intellectual potential") and conservative aims ("protection of the family, this county borders, and all the values that have been developed over centuries in the Russian society"). G. Yavlinsky is orthodox; he's a permanent member of the World Russian People's Council. Taking into account the variety of views and "tasks", Yabloko agrees to be called the Social-Liberal Party. In autumn 2007, the party along with numerous role-playing and functional factions (women, youth, green, Soldiers' Mothers) created the first fraction, based on ideology - social democratic.
Yabloko's electoral rolls during the 2007 campaign mainly comprised monologues of Grigory Yavlinsky about why we must vote in favor of Yabloko. One of the arguments was: vote for the person to whom you have entrusted to bring up her child if left on a business trip for a few years. The debate was attended by Grigory Yavlinsky, Sergei Ivanenko, Mitrokhin, occasionally - Kovalyov. On the last day of campaigning, Yavlinsky named Yabloko the party of the Russian Intellectual Elite and said that he was not ashamed to be in the minority, shameful is to be in the herd.
The result of the elections - 1,108,985 votes (1.59%).
In the regional elections, the party was able to register only in the Saratov region, where it received 2.55%.
Bureau of the Central Council of Yabloko party has decided not to nominate its own presidential candidate and to support the candidature of Vladimir Bukovsky. The Bukovsky initiative group has not been registered by the CEC because of the assumption that its candidate has British citizenship or residency, as well as due to the fact that the candidate has not been a Russian resident for the last 10 years preceding the election, and has not submitted official documents, proving he really had an official job of a writer.
2008. Change of Chairman
On the night of June 22, 2008, during the first stage of the XV Congress of the Party Sergei Mitrokhin was elected Chairman of the "Yabloko". Grigory Yavlinsky, who held the position for 15 years, refused the formal leadership of the Party, but pointedly hinted: "Leader - is not someone who takes the position, but the one who's the LEADER...". In response to the invitation of Victor Sheynis to withdraw from the party platform negative mention of the 90s (not the quarrel with SPS), Yavlinsky succinctly expressed the differences between 90-part and the current period, "then society was moving in the right direction, but made mistakes and crimes, Now a lot of useful things are being done, but the direction is wrong. "
During the alternative election of the chairman, Sergei Mitrokhin scored 75 out of 125 votes, 24 votes got the leader of the "ornage" wing of the party Maxim Reznik (St. Petersburg), 20 votes — the leader of the Karelian Yabloko Vasily Popov.
In accordance with the tradition of Yabloko’s congresses, Grigory Yavlinsky (though no longer chairman) announced before the election of the governing bodies - the Political Bureau and - lists of candidates supported by them in the amount personally, about equal to the number of seats in these organs. Bureau - a relatively large organization with wide representation of regions, Political Committee - 11 people, mainly Moscow and St. Petersburg residents to formulate the party's position on public interest issues. Maxim Reznik did not get half of the votes required for passage in the Political Committee, but scored in the Bureau.
Grigory Yavlinsky persuaded Congress delegates not to discuss and vote, introduced into by a number of regions of the project, to expel Reznik and Ilya Yashin from the party. Later, Ilya Yashin, who became one of the leaders of "Solidarity", yet was expelled from the Party on decision by the regional council of the Moscow organization with the wording "for causing political damage."
2009. Yabloko leaves the Moscow City Duma
The elections to the Moscow City Duma of V convocation was held in October 11, 2009. Only two parties have overcome the 7-percent barrier: United Russia received 32 seats (15 proportional and 17 majoritarian) and the Communist Party with 3 proportional mandates. "Yabloko", according to the official information, received 4.71% - 116,353 votes, although according to Mitrokhin, really, the party had 12%.
Observers candidates from Yabloko reported during and after the vote on the numerous violations, and member Mosgorizbirkoma from Yabloko Valery Goryachev refused to sign the protocol on results of elections in response to the "stuffing, non-issuance of the observers copies of protocols, removing observers from the opposition parties from the areas."
After losing the election in Moscow, "Yabloko" has lost the last official rostrum, which the party enjoyed in the absence of hard faction in the Duma.
Against the "polynomial"
Back in December 2007, former deputy chairman of the Moscow branch (of the Party) Alexei Navalny was expelled from the "Yabloko" - "for causing political damage to the Party, in particular for his nationalist activities" (namely, his membership and co-chairing in the "People" Movement National-Democratic Union, established by Sergei Gulyaev, as well as participation in the "Russian Marches" preparation and conduct).
In December 2009, Moscow hosted the second stage of the XV federal Congress of the party. It was taken unpopular among ordinary and un-ordinary Democrats decision on membership in other organizations. Resolution "On the double membership" of the Congress was:
"Party members can simultaneously be a member of only those public organizations that do not have a political program, do not participate in the elections, and share the values and principles of the party" Yabloko".
Excluded simultaneous membership in the party "Yabloko" and other registered parties (according to law) that do not have a registration (the Republican Party of Russia, the Social-Democratic Party of Russia, and others);organizations and political groups that have their own political agenda (AKM, NBP, "Left Front", the EIF - the Party of Communists, UCF, RPDU and "Solidarity"), as well as coalitions in which they are made ("the National Assembly of the Russian Federation", " Other Russia "), etc.
Those who after three months have not announced their withdrawal and incompatibility with Yabloko’s organizations, the Congress decided to assume automatically were expelled from the party, even if they were members of the governing bodies or heads of regional offices.
Maxim Reznik said at that time that in St. Petersburg "Yabloko" nobody will declassify his party colleagues, if they are convicted of membership in other organizations in addition to the party.
Looking at the "Solidarity" and the websites of the National Assembly, the organs of the party "Yabloko" identified 47 double memberships. On the party's website was set up a special page for the application for withdrawal of dual membership. From February 17 to April 20, 2010, 10 applications for the 50 signatures have been published on the website. One of these applications for 37 signatures (including Alexander Gudimova, Maxim Reznik, Alexandra Shursheva) couched in harsh tones:
"We consider the resolution “On the double membership” harmful and damaging not only to our party, but the entire democratic movement in Russia. The responsibility for this step and its consequences lay entirely with Grigory Yavlinsky, Sergei Mitrokhin, and Sergei Ivanenko. It is these people, concentrating the real power in the party in its fullness, who are trying to turn a single democratic organization in Russia, which has the status of a political party, into their inseparable property. (...) The current non-self-chairman of the Party, who was elected as a result of the "successor" inner-operation, implements and voices the position to the real leader of the Party Grigory Yavlinsky. However, this line in its design and looks sillier and rougher. "
The signatories, calling himself a "reformist wing of the party", were in the minority, have promised to continue to fight for a change of leadership "Yabloko" and "to continue to cooperate with those who believe his comrades in the struggle for the democratic future of Russia."
Nevertheless, serious scandals within the party because of this decision, Congress avoided.
Regional elections 2008-2011
"Yabloko" in the past three and a half years could take part in the parliamentary elections in 5 regions (2009 - Moscow, Tula region, 2010 - Chelyabinsk Region, 2011 - Kaliningrad and Kursk region), but the party could not recruit the necessary number of votes to obtain mandates. In 4 more regions, the party was not able to collect enough signatures for registration (2008). In some regions, such as North Ossetia, authorities prevent registration of the regional branch of the party, which deprives it there the possibility of participating in the elections (theoretically in this case, the right to nominate candidates for the federal Congress, but it would be too costly).
Party from March 2002 is the Liberal International (previously - Observer in November 1998), since 2006 - and the European Liberal Democrat and Reform.
The deputies of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe consisted of Yabloko in a fraction of the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform. Exception - Vladimir Averchev in the Duma of I and II convocations, which consisted of the Socialist faction. In the II Duma one of four of their mandates in PACE "Yabloko" gave to Sergei Kovalev (a member of the parliamentary group of the unregistered Democratic Choice of Russia at that moment), also joined the group of Liberals, Democrats and Reformers.
Elections - 2011
XVI Congress of the Party, that was held during 10-11 September of 2011, put forward a list to the State Duma of the 374 people (at the time of registration - 363) led by Grigory Yavlinsky, Sergei Mitrokhin and chlenkorrom environmentalist Alexei Yablokov. The top ten also includes ex-deputies Boris Misnik and Alexander Shishlov, municipal deputy Olga Kolokolova, head of the fraction "Soldiers' Mothers" Svetlana Kuznetsova, businessmen Anatoly Leirich (former "Right Cause") and Igor Nikolaev, the analyst Andrei Ryabov. Dmitry Muratov, the chief of "Novaya Gazeta" was nominated but withdrew the candidacy. St. Petersburg group is headed by the journalist of "Novaya Gazeta" Boris Vishnevsky, on a low spot in one of the Moscow group - Yulia Kalinina (journalist MK). The human rights activist Sergei Kovalev - at the 11th place in the Mordovian, Penza, Ulyanovsk group. Ex-mayor of Arkhangelsk Alexander Donskoy was included in the list, but then excluded from it for the fact that concealed from the party earlier convictions for robbery.
The result of the election party - 3.43% (2.2 million votes). Overcoming the 3-percent threshold, the party after a four-year hiatus, won the right to public funding of 45 million. 48 thousand 60 rubles a year.
The "Yabloko" lists have been registered in 6 regions during the regional elections of 4 December 2011. In other three the Party lists were denied registration, while in the remaining 4 it did not hand over the signatures needed. In the Moscow region the party required to register it without putting signatures, considering the set of their disproportionate number (110 thousand despite the fact that it is necessary to 150 in federal elections). Having been refused, Sergei Mitrokhin suggested that residents of the Moscow region in Mosobldumu (Duma of Moscow Oblast) vote for "Pravoe Delo" headed by Boris Nadezhdin, who, in turn, supported the "Yabloko" on the federal election. As a result of the election, party held candidates from the lists to the legislature of the Pskov Region, Karelia and St. Petersburg. The fraction in Petersburg Sachs led Grigory Yavlinsky.
Elections - 2012
The second stage, the XVI Party Congress of 18 December 2011 put forward a presidential candidate Grigory Yavlinsky. At the suggestion of a guest of the congress Eugenya Chirikova, the candidacy of Alexei Navalny was discussed, but the Congress did not include him in the ballot of the nomination of the candidate. At the same time, the Chairman of the Party Sergei Mitrokhin referred to the fact that Navalny is a nationalist and that was the reason for him being expelled of the party, as nationalist views are incompatible with membership in the "Yabloko". Just one congress delegate voted for including Navalny in the ballot.
Grigory Yavlinsky was nominated by 106 votes in a secret ballot. The remaining 3 ballots were cast for the actor Viktor Balabanov.
January 27, Russian CEC refused to register the candidacy of Grigory Yavlinsky on the grounds of exceeding the number of invalid and false signatures in the signature lists. The vast majority of the signatures were not counted due to "improper execution of signature sheets", in particular due to the fact that part of the signature sheets had not been printed in the printing due to the election fund, as required by law, and printed and photocopied on the ground.
2012 - 2016
In the Moscow City Duma elections in 2014, "Yabloko" has put forward in its list of representatives of the opposition parties "December 5" and "Democratic Choice".
Regular elections to the leadership of the party held at the XVIII Congress of "Yabloko" on 19-20 December 2015. The third chairman of the party "Yabloko" elected Emilia Slabunova. In 2015, elected deputy chairman of the party, Alexander Gnezdilov, Sergei Ivanenko, Nikolai Rybakov.
In February 2016, the State Duma deputy Dmitry Gudkov and former co-chairman of the party Parnas Vladimir Ryzhkov called democratic opposition to create a single list on the basis of "Yabloko" in the Duma elections in the autumn.