The party of the left leg
On March 24th, 2006, the charismatic leader of the parliamentary party "Rodina", Dmitry Rogozin, losing to administrative pressure, resigned from all party posts "for tactical reasons", promising to his colleagues that "after a certain time this will give me and my political partners a synergistic effect."
The same day, the deputy of the Presidential Administration, Vladislav Surkov, addressed the most active members of the Russian Party of Life (RPL) with an historic speech. The content of which was made public only on the 15th of August.
Vladislav Surkov expressed concern about the Kremlin that "there is no alternative large party, there is no society with a 'second leg', which you can cross when the first is stiff. This makes the system unstable." All opposition parties - the Liberal Democratic Party, the Communist Party and the Motherland - he described as "left-leaning parties, and with a strong nationalistic flavor" and offered the Russian Party of Life to play an "educational role" towards them:
"Maybe someday, after the transformation of the conditional left, conventionally patriotic spectrum, its modernization, rejuvenation and bringing back normal traditions - and social democracy, and healthy patriotism - this is what happens... your party is in the struggle to modernize the development of our political system. This could attract the all the things that can not draw power in the broadest sense of the word... the more you will be able to collect the votes of those who do not support the power, but it is not its antagonists, and these, too, it really is - the better... you have to work long and hard until you are at least part of the protest electorate not won here in these "Black Hundreds" of parties and movements..."
Closing the meeting, the chairman of PCA, Sergei Mironov, wished the audience "success in that we have clearly, in my view, flows into one 'leg' as soon as possible to obtain a second, solid, reliable, sporty and young 'foot'. Vital 'foot'! "
July 25th, 2006, Sergey Mironov and the new head of the "Rodina" Party Alexander Babakov announced their intention to unite, and in the beginning of August they were joined by the Russian Party of Pensioners, headed by Igor Zotov. The merger was finalized during the united parties Congress of October 28, 2006.
From a formal legal point of view, at the October congress (with the combined space and time of the conventions of the three parties), there occurred a transformation of the RPL and EPA to non-Party public associations (respectively: "The Charter of Life" and "Russian pensioners"), followed by the acceptance of their membership in the "Motherland" party and the renaming of the last to the party "FAIR RUSSIA: MOTHERLAND /PENSIONERS/LIFE". Its governing bodies were established on a parity basis of an equal number of representatives of the three parties.
From the staffing point of view, there was absorption of "Rodina" and The Russian Pensioners Party by the Party of Life.
From the parliamentary point of view, a rapprochement of the Duma faction of "Rodina", soon renamed to "A Just Russia - Rodina" (about 30 members), and representatives of the Party of Life in the Federation Council (about 12 senators) under the leadership of Sergei Mironov, happened.
Three Sources and Three Component Parts. Russian Regions Party/ "Rodina" Party
The first attempt to create something like the bloc "Motherland" in 2003 during the election was the campaign of the Congress of Russian Communities (KRO) during the 1995 Duma elections. Partly left, partly patriotic (moderate nationalist) selective association headed by ex-Russian Security Council Secretary Yuri Skokov, General Alexander Lebed and economist Sergei Glazyev, using image-maker's services of the same Marat Gelman, who would work in the "Rodina" in 2003, failed, gaining 4.31% and justified fear of the Communists that it will "bite" them and spray a large half (almost 3 million) votes. In single-member districts back then 5 deputies from the KRO had passed, together with deputies from Baburin-Ryzhkovskiy's bloc "Power to People" they formed the basis of the Union Communist parliamentary group "Narodovlastie".
Party of Russian Regions (future party "Rodina") was established in the summer of 1998 under the leadership of Yuri Skokov and registered by the Ministry of Justice on August 27, 1998 (Reg.№3570). Co-chairmen of the party from 1998 to 2003 were Yuri Skokov, chairman of the Russian trade union of students (Raposa) Oleg Denisov, Chairman of the Commission on Citizenship under the President of Russia Oleg Kutafin, journalist for the newspaper "Tomorrow" Shamil Sultanov and Rostov businessman Valentin Chistyakov.
The party did not participate in the 1999 Duma elections. Sergei Glazyev was in the III Duma on the list of the Communist Party.
In summer 2003, Sergei Glazyev entered the Party, to be chosen its sixth Co-Chair, after which it became one of the three main structures of the left electoral bloc under the leadership of Glazyev. Alexei Podberezkin's United Socialist Party of Russia (SEPR) and Oleg Shein and Sergey Khramov's Russian Labour Party (RTP) would have become the other founders of the bloc (working title - "Comrade"). According to Dmitry Rogozin's ally Andrei Saveliev, "three factors broke that script: the consistent and subtle game of Dmitry Rogozin, who gradually turned the left-wing bloc to a national-patriotic one; the presence of Sergei Baburin, whose far from being left-wing 'People's Will' Party entered the bloc last minute; and my modest efforts - above all, the constant demonstration of fastidious rejection of 'comrades'. "
In September 2003, the PRR, "Narodnaya Volya" and SEPR (which A. Podberyozkin left, he said - because of nationalist bias created unit) officially established a unit called "Rodina (People's Patriotic Union)." In the election of the II Congress of the Party of Russian Regions on September 14th 2002, the party joined Dmitry Rogozin, who was the seventh of its co-chairmen.
In the elections on December 7th, 2003, the "Rodina" bloc won 9.02% of the votes and established in the IV Duma a fraction of 36 people, headed by Sergei Glazyev (faction leader) and Dmitry Rogozin (State Duma Vice-Speaker).
At the turn of 2003-2004, there developed a rivalry between the two leaders in the Duma fraction "Rodina" and outside. In December, Sergei Glazyev announced his candidacy for president of Russia. Russian Party of Regions nominates Viktor Gerashchenko for this post, who soon refuses to participate in elections. Dmitry Rogozin is lobbying Vladimir Putin's candidacy on the Congress of affiliate Party "Narodnaya Volya", but they support Glazyev. SEPR splits into pro Glazyev (E.Muhina) and pro-Putin (V.Shestakov) groups. January 30th, Glazyev holds the founding congress of the "Rodina" People's Patriotic Union (NPS), seeking to make the organization a successor of the electoral bloc. In response, on February 15th, Rogozin holds a congress of PRR at which Glazyev is removed from his heading positions (replaced by Gerashchenko), and the party is renamed "The Homeland".
In the Duma faction Rogozin's allies are in majority. On March 3rd, Rogozin is elected the faction leader instead of Glazyev, while offering his Deputy Speaker chair to Sergei Baburin. Glazyev supported by the party "Narodnaya Volya" and part of the split SEPR, elected him as their leader, took the presidential elections in third place after President Vladimir Putin and Communist candidate Nikolai Kharitonov with the result of 4.10%.
The party "Rodina" is winning the struggle for the inheritance of the "Homeland" bloc, as most members of the faction enters into its composition.
Popular brand "Rodina" is accompanied by success in the regional elections of 2004, where it is used by whomever in the names of all electoral blocs (Republicans, agrarians, Eurasians). This becomes one of the reasons that prompted the chairman of the Central Election Commission Alexander Veshnyakov to initiate a law banning electoral blocs altogether. Having gotten rid of the impostor competitors, the "Rodina" party in 2005, surely one of the four winners of the regional elections (followed by the EP, the CPRF and LDPR), holding deputies by proportional representation in 10 of 20 cases, including two regions (Voronezh region, Yamal) achieving the second place.
In 2005, Dmitry Rogozin suddenly goes into opposition, starting the year with a hunger strike to protest against the monetization of benefits, demanding the resignation of several ministers. "We are no longer the president's Special Forces" - Rogozin said, coming out of the hunger strike. Rogozin said that the party should immediately take on the organization of protests and "to become the spokesman of the protest voter." Regionally, "Motherland" comes out for joint action with the Communist Party and becomes part of the "street opposition".
Authorities blocked the "Motherland" access to federal TV channels, and in some regions sharply escalated its pressure on the "Motherland". In the Vladimir region the party was not allowed to participate in the elections and under various pretexts almost half of its list was taken off. The Ryazan region against elected with the active support of the "Rodina" Governor Georgy Shpak was a criminal investigation into irregularities in the financing of its last year's gubernatorial campaign. And the administration of the Voronezh region tried to put pressure on the members of the party list of "Rodina" in an attempt to force them to withdraw their candidacies.
March 13, 2005, Dmitry Rogozin at a rally in the center of Ryazan named the party "United Russia the main enemy of his party " - for the continuation, together with the government, of the 'reformers' of the beginning of 1990s' policy, which was destroying the social sphere and putting the economic situation in Russia at the mercy of oligarchic structures.
In April 2005, "Rodina" and the Communist Party appealed to the Central Election Commission with a demand to hold a referendum on 17 issues - to raise pensions and the minimum wage to a living wage and the restoration of the pre-reform contributions to nationalize major enterprises and land, the preservation of the elections of the State Duma deputies on single-seat constituencies, direct elections of governors and a delay from the army. CEC refused, recognizing the issues proposed to the imposition of a referendum, not corresponding to the law "On Referendum of the Russian Federation."
With the December 2005 elections to the Moscow City Duma, the list of the party "Rodina" takes the court for a video with watermelon rinds thrown by guest worker, who Rogozin forced to pick up. After that, the column "against all" gains in the elections to the Moscow record number of votes - 5.44%.
Administrative pressure on the party grows, and its lists are not registered or are removed in the March 2006 regional elections in 7 of 8 cases. In the Republic of Altai, where "The Homeland" was restored by the court in the last pre-election days, it won 2nd place, after the UR - 10.52%. This result didn't satisfy Rogozin, and on the 24th of March, on the eve of the VI Congress of the party, he retired with the words: "my current solution will give me and my political partners a synergistic effect over time", recommending himself as a replacement for Alexander Babakov.
VII Congress of the party "Rodina" October 28, 2006, renames it to the party "Fair Russia: Motherland/Pensioners/Life". Sergei Mironov becomes the chairman of the party, Alexander Babakov becomes the Secretary of the Presidium of the Central Council. Dmitry Rogozin and Andrei Saveliev are not included into party leadership, and six months later they begin to create their own party — "Great Russia". Sergei Glazyev announces retirement from politics to science (and a few years later appointed as executive secretary of the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan).
Journalists invent many malevolent nicknames for the party (SpRos, ZhiRoPen) and its members (SRs, spravedlivtsy, spravedlivorossy, spravorossy). The neutral context the term "spravorossy" is probably used more often. Neither political analysts nor many of the party members want to associate members of "Fair Russia" with historical SRs (Socialist-Revolutionaries) of the beginning of XX century.
During the divorce Dmitry Rogozin's son Alexei has got rodina.ru domain name and, after some time it has become a habitat of website of the reanimated Congress of Russian Communities (the new name of "Motherland - CRC"). By the 2011 elections, "Motherland - CRC" finally revived and joined the All-Russian People's Front of Putin - Medvedev. Chairman of the National Council of the "Rodina - KRO", Alexey Zhuravlev, was included in the federal list of parties EP, and Alexey Rogozin - in the EP list in Mosobldumu (both held for deputies).
In the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe "Rodina" was represented by Alexander Fomenko (a follower of Baburin) and professor Natalia Narochnitskaya. Both were in a fraction of the European United Left, which was chosen for "the least anti-Russian position." Entering into it, they honestly warned future associates (Communists and radical green) that they are Orthodox monarchists and Jean-Marie Le Pen's political partners.
Three sources and three component parts. Russian Party of Pensioners
Pensioners' Party (since 2001 - Russian Party of Pensioners) created by Siberian businessman with political ambitions Sergei Atroshenko (in 1996 he ran for governor of the Tyumen region, came out in the second round), the founding congress was held November 29, 1997, the party is registered by the Ministry of Justice on May 29, 1998 (Identification No 3529). The main policy document - "Manifesto of the Party of Pensioners", is based on the idea of redistribution of the natural rent in favor of the citizens of the country through the opening of accounts registered with the monthly enrollment to them a certain amount.
In the elections to the State Duma III in December 19, 1999, the party received almost 1.3 million votes (1.95%). In April 2002, the party gained 6% and held its representatives in the Sverdlovsk regional Duma.
In the elections to the State Duma IV on the 7th of December 2003, PSC in the bloc with the Party of Social Justice Vladimir Kishenin received 1.87 million votes (3.09%). Overcoming the 3-percent threshold, the party won the right to government funding (2006 - 4,687,433 rubles), but the extracurricular congress of the party on January 31, 2004 had decided that this was not enough, dismissing Sergei Atroshenko and electing deputy representative of State Duma from the Chelyabinsk region, businessman and head of the Chelyabinsk regional branch of the RPP Valery Hartung. At the next Congress, March 27, 2004, V. Gartung was elected as chairman of the party.
With the new chairman the PSC begins to actively participate in regional elections and achieves impressive success. The fall of 2004, PSC exposes lists in 7 of the 11 regions and in all - passes, gaining from 5.8% (Irkutsk) to 13.29% (Mari El). Political analysts explain the success of the party with its smart name. In 2005, the party won the legislature elections in 5 regions (with a record result of 20.68% in the Magadan region), failed in two and withdrew from the elections in four (including those in the Chelyabinsk region, where the Party chances were good). The reason for withdrawing from the election - Meshchansky District Court of Moscow satisfied the lawsuit Sergei Atroshenko, demanded the restoration of the post of party chairman.
October 9, 2005, for the first time surpassed PSC "United Russia" in the elections by party lists in the Tomsk City Duma, receiving 19.8% of votes, while the "United Russia" party received - 17.85%.
December 17, 2005, convened an extraordinary congress of the party, at which its leader Valery Hartung was not allowed. Hartung explains the press, the congress holds presidential administration. Sergey Atroshenko founded a new party - the Party of Social Protection (COR) - and claim on nothing anymore. Igor Zotov, vice governor from Tula, was elected the PSC Chairman, proclaiming support for Vladimir Putin's social policies (which the RPF fought against under the leadership of Hartung).
Despite the pro-Putin turn, the party continues in regional elections with success. In the spring of 2006, it is held in 4 regional parliaments (including in the Nizhny Novgorod region with a score of 17.19%) and losing 4 campaigns, in the fall wins elections in all of the 7 regions (not being allowed to take part in the elections in two others).
VIII Congress of the PSC, October 28, 2006, approved the merger with Rodina and PCA and transformed the party into the "Russian Pensioners" All-Russian Public Organization. At the founding congress of the "Fair Russia" in the same day, Igor Zotov was elected as a secretary of the Central Council of the party.
Over the next year, some regional branches of the party, particularly - deprived of fasting during the unification process - to announce its withdrawal from the United Party and join the initiative to restore the PSC. At the disposal of these forces is the site of the former Party www.rospp.ru. October 28, 2007, the opposition held II Congress of the organization "Russian pensioners", who decided to support the course of the Russian Federation president V. V. Putin and to recognize the erroneous abrogated decisions of VIII Congress of the PSC, and discussed the reverse transformation of the organization into a political party. The site continues to exist on behalf of the regional offices of the unregistered Russian Party of Pensioners, the last update was in April 2011. In the "governing bodies" are registered former leaders led by Igor Zotov.
Three sources and three component parts. Russian Party of Life
The first political organization, headed by Sergei Mironov, was a regional movement "Will of St. Petersburg", which was established in September 2000 by participants in the March presidential campaign of Vladimir Putin, including several members of the St. Petersburg Legislative Assembly.
In March 2002, the initiative group of the Russian Party of Life was formed (RPL), headed by a member of the Federation Council Rifgat Altynbaev. Notice of the establishment of the organizing committee of RPJ was made by Ministry of Justice March 21, 2002 (the authorized person of the organizing committee - the Advisor of the Federation Council Speaker Alexander Podlesov). Even then press suggested that the party was created "by Sergei Mironov."
Sergei Mironov attended the founding congress of the June 29, 2002, but did not come into the party. Most of the delegates to the founding congress of RPL are members of the movement "Will of St. Petersburg", a dwarf Party "A Million Friends", Union of Public Associations "Russian Ecological Congress," socio-political union "Women for the health of the nation", and the International Association "Green Cross", the Russian Red Cross and the International Confederation of rescue services. September 9, 2002, RPL was registered by the Ministry of Justice. Sergei Mironov, speaking on the television program "Parliamentary Hour" in the second half of 2002, said that he strongly supports the formation of Russian Party of Life, but he has no relation to it.
At the end of February 2003, S. Mironov applied for membership to the Russian Party of Life. On March 12, he received a membership card under №7777 and stated that he would have agreed to become the official leader of the party, if such offer had been given.
April 19, 2003, the I Congress of RPL took place, which adopted changes and amendments to the bylaws, Sergei Mironov was elected chairman of the party, his deputies - R.Altynbaev, N.Levichev, A. Podlesov (aka - the chairman of the executive committee). In total, the party took 17 members of the Federation Council (later as a result of the rotation of the members of SF their number was reduced to 12).
The program of the Russian Party of Life did not proclaim it a left, right or centrist party, proposing a consolidating idea: "the ideology of the Party of Life - is the ideology of the consolidation of society. We are absolutely sure that on the basis of our ideology it is possible to create a society of solidarity. That means that the agreement to achieve the most important goal - to live in dignity - can and must be above any differences on how to achieve it. A society of solidarity is an effectively functioning society with a high level of mutual understanding and cooperation. "
In May-June 2003, the youth organization "Energy of Life" (Chairman - - Yuri Lopusov) under "Russian Party of Life" had been established, which included former Miss Universe, "Good night, kids!" TV program's anchor and police captain Oksana Fedorova.
The party went to the 2003 Duma Elections in a bloc with the Gennady Seleznev's Russian Revival Party (bloc two speakers). Bloc PVR-PCa got 1,140,333 votes (1.88%), three deputies from the bloc were elected in districts - Gennady Seleznyov, Valentine Savostyanova (entered in the fraction "Rodina") and Anton Bankov (entered into a faction ER, and then - to the party SPS).
January 4, 2004, III (extracurricular) of Russian Party of Life's congress unanimously nominated Sergey Mironov as a presidential candidate, in which he, in so far as permitted by law, campaigned in favor of another candidate - Vladimir Putin and finished at the last, sixth place with a score of 524,332 votes (0.75%).
In March 2005, Vyacheslav Igrunov's party SLON and Levon Chakhmakhchyan's Party of Government Workers (PGW) announced an alliance to jointly overcome the seven-percent barrier in the 2007 parliamentary elections, and in 2011 - to become a party of the parliamentary majority. The coalition did not develop further: V. Igrunov was disappointed in it and L. Chahmahchyan joined the Russian Party of Life after the self-dissolution of his own party.
In the regional elections in December 2003, the "Russian Party of Life" participated in 4 campaigns, and in one of them (in Ingushetia) was able to get its deputies into the legislative body. In spring 2004, the party lost 4 of the regional campaigns. For the spring 2005 campaign RPL chose a new tactic: to combine their federal, including the financial resources of the local structures of other parties, and led deputies to the AP 5, three of them - in blocs with Yabloko or the People's Party of the Russian Federation. During the elections to Amur regional council, pro-governer's bloc "Russian Party of Life" together with "Yabloko" got 1st place with 17.7%, coming ahead of the "United Russia"; the party failed to pass only in the Voronezh region. In autumn 2005, the party did not pass in 5 regions, in the Kostroma region due to the low entry barriers (4%). In spring 2006, the party took place in 2 regions, in 4 it did not pass and in two it did not participate.
At the V Congress of October 28, 2006, RPL has been transformed into the all-Russian movement "Charter of Life." On the same day, Sergey Mironov was elected Chairman of the "Fair Russia" party. Nikolai Levichev obtained the main post of the Secretary of the Presidium of the Central Council Political Bureau in the unified party.
The pre-Congress "primaries"
Regional campaign of October 8th and December 3rd 2006 - the last before the united congress - considered the leaders of the merging parties as a kind of primaries which of the parties competing with each other in many areas, get better results - and that will be prepared for a leading role in the association.
It seems, the Party of Pensioners won the primaries. But the only real conclusion from this was the retention of the word "retired" in the joint name of the party.
The greatest total success was achieved by the coalition in Tyva, where the Russian Party of Life with the consideration of single-member districts (where a considerable part of the leadership of the republican parliament of the previous convocation moved before the election) won more seats than the EP. А protracted conflict of elite began in the republic: the courts canceled the election results of 4 single-seat constituencies, ensuring a relative majority of the EP. PCA boycotted the parliamentary sessions, demanding to restore the selected credentials. The case ended by the resignation of the head of the republic Sherig-ool Oorzhak and regional change of leadership of United Russia.
Spring 2007 Campaign
In the elections on March 11th and April 15th 2007, "Fair Russia" for the first time came as a single unit and has achieved the desired - among the three election winners almost everywhere ahead of the Liberal Democratic Party, but in most cases losing to the Communist Party (one 1st place, five of 2, seven 3, two 4, including losing one).
The party succeeded greatly in the Stavropol region (37.64%, the first place) and St. Petersburg, where it managed to take an absolute majority of seats in the Legislature from "United Russia". As a result, a conflict happened in the Stavropol region, comparable to Tuvan, but with the opposite distribution of roles:
"The United Russia" made an attempt to disrupt the meeting of the regional Duma, whose Speaker was of The "Fair Russia" Party. The Governor (a defector from the Communist Party) is excluded from "The United Russia". Stavropol Mayor Dmitry Kuzmin - leader of the edge of the "Fair Russia" and one of the main creators of victory - in late 2007, was removed from office and wanted.
Fair Russia in the State Duma and the Federation Council
After merging the parties, Sergei Mironov was involved in the legislative process in the State Duma, and his signature often began to appear under the fractional bills introduced in conjunction with A. Babakov and I.Kharchenko. Among them - the laws about the transfer of the weekend from January 5 to May 2; a ban on the membership of two or more members of any election commission in the same political party; a ban on the receiving of political donations from manufacturers and wholesale sellers of tobacco; a ban on outdoor advertising on historical monuments in the historic city center. A number of projects on pensions submitted together with Sergei Mironov entered into a faction Oksana Dmitrieva. The first and the only bill that represented the Federation Council Speaker Mironov arrived in person at the meeting of the Duma, was the introduction of a 10-year residency requirement for members of the Federation Council (the law was adopted).
Among other faction initiatives in the last election months - the introduction of a progressive income tax, luxury tax and restoration of the estate tax.
In the fraction of the end of 2007, came independent single-mandate deputies Evgeny Roizman, Oksana Dmitrieva, Victor Pohmelkin, Valery Zubov; three of them came to the "Fair Russia" party (except O. Dmitrieva). Actors I. Starygin and E.Zharikov, hockey player A.Yakushev and director Yu. Grymov also became party members.
Sergey Mironov has apologized to voters for their vote to support the monetization of benefits and become more likely to vote not as majority of United Russia's the Federation Council: did not support the abolition of the column "against all", strongly opposed elimination of the hammer and sickle from the Victory Banner, he voted against the accession of Russia to the Bologna process (taken at the second attempt).
On the pre-election II Party Congress, September 23, 2007, Sergei Mironov addressed the participants with a new ideology of socialism (Socialism 3.0), as opposing it to the modern European social democracy, which "gave rise to a class of social dependents", as well as the Soviet directive socialism. "Socialism - it is not just a way of life, it is the age-old desire of people to a harmonious world order, decent and safe life", - said Mironov. Sergey Mironov declared Plato, the first Christians and all European revolutions as the predecessors of the party in disseminating the ideas of justice
By the time of the congress, to the "Fair Russia" have joined, going to dissolve, another 4 parties: Narodnaya party of the Russian Federation (Gennady Gudkov), United Socialist Party of Russia (Vasily Shestakov) Enterprise Development (Oksana Dmitrieva) and the Russian Constitutional-Democratic Party (Vyacheslav Volkov) - the last two have made it because of despair, because the Ministry of Justice counted them in less than the required minimum of 50 thousand members.
The federal list of the party headed by Sergei Mironov, independent State Duma deputy, in the past - the vice-speaker of the Supreme Council and the State Duma from the Communist Svetlana Goryachev and leader of the youth movement "Hurrah!" under the former party "Rodina" Sergei Shargunov. The latter was excluded from the list by the decision of the Presidium of the CA party on October 19, 2007.
The congress was attended by the recent "Yabloko" Party members - State Duma deputies Sergei Popov and Galina Khovanskaya, who were included in the Party federal list, the former co-founder of "Yabloko" Yuri Boldyrev, former communists Elena Drapeko and Alexander Kuvayev, and former members of - SPS - Elena Mizulina, "Narodnaya Volya" - Anatoliy Greshnevikov and Nikolai Pavlov, the Liberal Democratic Party - Alexei Mitrofanov and Yegor Solomatin.
The campaign consisted of a batch of bright commercials against poverty and corruption. During the debates, Sergey Mironov and Oksana Dmitrieva criticized the government's social policy. In one of the clips SF speaker exclaimed, "Before you - the Staff Sergeant of the assault forces Seryoga Mironov."
The election program of the party provided social reforms in almost all spheres of life, expressed support for young people, advocated for the abolition of the Unified State Examination (USE) and the admission of the Code of justice in international relations by United Nations. SR actively challenged the Communist Party of the Soviet the use of images and symbols, including in the court (unsuccessfully).
The result of the elections - 5,383,639 votes (7.74%, fourth place), 38 seats in the State Duma of the V convocation.
In the Duma of the fifth convocation of the post of Deputy Speaker of the faction CP, took Alexander Babakov, members of the faction served as chairman of two committees - on Science and High Technology (Valery cherry) and the Women, Family and Children (Elena Mizulina). The fraction in the Duma was headed by Nikolai Levichev, and after the expulsion of Sergei Mironov from the Federation Council and his movement to the Duma - by Mironov.
Fraction in the Duma of the V-th convocation voted against the budgets of 2009 - 2012 years in all the readings, except the third reading of the 2011 budget when it abstained. Members of the faction already included in the election list of "United Russia" voted for the budget of 2012 in October - November 2011, in to deputies Lekareva (Budget 2009), Moskalkova (2009) and Mizulina (2012), who voted for the budget once in each convocation.
In the regional elections of 2007, the party held its lists 7 of 9 regional parliaments to elect (in Mordovia has not passed, Kamchatka list removed from the election due to the release of the list of many candidates).
On December 10th, 2007, the leaders of the four parties - Boris Gryzlov (United Russia), Sergei Mironov (Fair Russia), Vladimir Plotnikov (APR) and Michael Barschevsky (Civil Force) all visited President Vladimir Putin and recommended him Dmitry Medvedev's candidature as his successor as President of Russia. As M. Barschevsky said to mass media representatives, the initial agreement on this candidacy was reached at a meeting of Sergey Mironov and Boris Gryzlov on December 8, and the APR and GS were invited to join.
December 22, 2007, the decision to support the candidacy of Dmitry Medvedev was taken by the Central Council of the Party.
By the three parties, co-founder of Fair Russia and the four parties that have adhered to it before the elections-2007 were added in autumn 2008 two more - Social Justice Party (Alex Podberezkin) and the Party "The Greens" (Anatoly Panfilov).
Social Justice Party was established in 2002 by a group of citizens, previously involved in the socio-political movement "Education - the future of Russia" ("DOBRo"), which, led by Larisa Babukh, tried to participate in the Duma elections in 1995, but failed to register its list. At the founding congress of September 19, 2002, Babukha Larisa, Lazutova Maria Nikolaevna, Mikhail Petrovich Karpenko, Anatoly Sidorenko Savelievich Tom Boris, Shabanov Anatoliy, Shadrikov Vladimir Dmitrievich were elected as co-chairmen of the party.
The Co-Chairs Karpenko, Sidorenko, Tomaev and Shabanov lasted in the management until the end of the party, but were not visible on the political scene. In the Duma elections of 2003, the party was led by businessman Vladimir Kishenin, who headed it in June of 2003. During the elections of December 7, 2003, PSS acted in the bloc with the Russian Pensioners' Party (RPP) of Sergei Atroshenko. The bloc has received 1,874,739 voters (3.09% 8th place out of 23 participants). Overcoming the 3-percent threshold, the party has acquired the right to the annual public funding (in 2006 - 4.7 mln).
During the presidential campaign of 2004, V. Kishenin was a confidant of the candidate Vladimir Putin. In August 2004, Kishenin moved from the PSS to the Social Democratic Party of Russia, and in agreement with its then chairman Konstantin Titov inherited his post at the III Congress of the SDPR September 4, 2004.
Heading into the SDPR, V. Kishenin appointed Alexei Padbyarozkin as the chief ideologist of the PSS (the official name of position), leaving with him as members of the presidium of the political council of the PSS his daughter Xenia Kishenina and former chairman of KGB of Azerbaijan Vagif Huseynov.
Alex Podberezkin leads the "RAU-Corporation" political research organization since the early '90s; in 1991-1993, he worked as an adviser to the Vice-President of Russia Alexander Rutskoi, in 1995-1999, he provided ideological activity to the Communist Party faction, that dominated the State Duma at that time. Proud to be the main author of the election programs of two major competing forces in the 1995 elections - the Communist Party and the Movement "Our Home - Russia" (V.Chernomyrdin). In 1999, Alex Podberezkin ran for the State Duma on the list of movement "Spiritual Heritage" (the result - 0.10%), and in 2000 - for President of Russia (0.13%). After unsuccessful attempts to create a united Socialist Party with the participation of Mikhail Gorbachev, Alexander Yakovlev, Ivan Rybkin, he transformed the "Spiritual Heritage" in the United Socialist Party of Russia (SEPR) and became its leader. Out of SEPR after the autumn of 2003, when SEPR merged with the nationalists in the election bloc "Rodina".
In November 2005, A. Podberezkin headed the list of PSJ in the elections to the Moscow City Duma. The list got 1.22% (8th place from 9 parties).
In April 2006, A. Podberezkin suspended his membership in the party because of him being appointed to the Office of the Government of the Russian Federation, where he became assistant to Dmitry Medvedev. He remained the leader of the MSS Party, and was listed as such on the Party official website. March 17, 2007, the Presidium of the Political Council of the CAP decided to establish an advisory body under the election - the General Council, whose secretary was appointed gallery owner Marat Guelman and political strategist. By the summer of 2007 Gelman left party politics.
The party was exhibited in the regional elections 1-2 times a year. During the 6 campaigns of autumn 2003 - spring of 2007, the party took place in one region (in March 2005 in the Ryazan region in a bloc with SDPR, gaining 10.76%) and failed in five (in Kalmykia, Tula - in the bloc with the SDPR and prostate cancer, Arkhangelsk, Moscow and Kirov).
At the VIII pre-electional PSS Congress on September 25, 2007 Party leader Alex Padbyarozkin made a realistic thesis: 100% results on the elections are not as important for the party as the informational impact during the campaign. In the list of the MSS candidates - there are Christian Democrats of the first wave: Ilya Konstantinov (MSS secretary of ideology) and Victor Aksiutchits (first deputy at that time. General Director of the Russian Research Institute of Freshwater Fisheries), the former Communist Party Internet server editor, expelled from the Communist Party on charges of "neo-Trotskyism", Anatoly Baranov, the Chairman of the Editorial board of the antiKPRF site pravda.info, political scientist Anton Surikov, writer Maria Arbatova. A. Podberezkin and two former state security officers, Maxim Leskov and Valery Vorotnikov were on the top of the list. During the Congress Podberezkin accused "Fair Russia" in the use of names confusingly similar to the name of the PSJ, but didn't bring it to court.
The party led a modest election campaign, scrolling in free time alternately three rollers: a cartoon - about a young reveler whose figure was similar to Podberezkin's promises that he will have problems; about the life-giving cross, which was on the waters during some CAP measures; pathetic performance against Sergei Dorenko "Bedov fallen joitheads" Boris Nemtsov. The individual presentations and debates A.Podberyozkin, I. Konstantinov and A. Baranov made the focus on the fact that "man - is everything."
The result of the election - 154,083 votes (0.22%) - the last place out of 11 participants in the elections.
December 7, 2007, the party also participated in the elections of the Parliament of North Ossetia, which ranked last with a score of 0.81%.
December 15, 2007, the Presidium of the Political Council of the party in response to the statement of the Chairman of the Political Council of the Party of Revival of Russia Georgiy Pryakhin decided to allow the mass joining of members of the TAC in PSS and her creation of PSS offices in the regions where they are not already on the basis of ISD offices.
In mid-December 2007, the Presidium of the Political Council of the party issued a statement of support for Dmitry Medvedev's candidacy for the presidency.
September 25, 2008, in the IX (extraordinary) Congress of the CAP took the decision to liquidate the Party and the entry of its members in "Fair Russia"
Party's website www.pp-pss.ru continues to function to this day and publishes press releases of "Fair Russia".
"The Greens" party, headed by Anatoly Panfilov, a veteran of the political scene as far back as the 1993 elections, it was listed on the ballot as the constructive-ecological movement "KEDR" and won 406,789 votes (0.76%). The CEDAR's attendance was unsuccessful, it reformed in 1994 into the Ecological Party "Cedar" (February 2002 - the party "Green"), and in the subsequent federal election - 1.39% in 1995, 0.42 in 2003. Cedar had to miss the 1999 Elections because from the list during the campaign were dropped out number 2 Ivan Okhlobystin and number 3 Vladimir Petrov, a chairman of the executive committee of the party, which then had been the basis for the removal of the party from a distance according to the law. In 2007, due to the 17.3% defective signatures the party list had not been registered.
The active cooperation of the party with the authorities and corporations was one of the reasons of a sharp negative attitude towards it on the part of the majority of independent environmental organizations in Russia all the years of its existence.
Motivating the inevitability of self-dissolution of the party, its chairman, at the XV Congress on November 21, 2008, said: "We are with the party as a suitcase without a handle: a pity to throw, and carry on is already difficult. We do not need to make illusions, that we through the party structure can achieve something in an almost one-party state " Upon the elections of 2011, it became known that the Russian environmental movement "Green" (successor of the abolished party) appointed party recovery congress for February 2012, the former "Green" Party website remaining their official one, green-party.ru.
Leaders of 8 of 9 affiliated parties were represented in the supreme governing body of the party - the Bureau of the Presidium of the Central Council. Among its 12 current members - Ivan Grachev (Enterprise Development), Gennady Gudkov (PPRF), Igor Zotov (RPP), Anatoly Panfilov (Green), Alex Podberezkin (PSJ) and, of course, Sergei Mironov (RPL). Before the expulsion from the party in August 10, 2011, (for participation in the Putin-Medvedev the Joint People's Front) members of the Bureau were Vasily Shestakov (SEPR) and Alexander Babakov (Homeland). Only Vyacheslav Volkov (RKDP), probably due to the insignificance of his party, received only the chair of the Central Council member (and not of the Presidium, and certainly not the Bureau). The remaining six members of the Bureau - people from the party "Rodina" Fedot Tumusov, Rimma Markova of the Pensioners' Party, Nikolai Levichev from RPJ, Alexander Podlesov, Oleg Nilov and party apparatus' leader Sergey Ohota.
The United Russia Party, which marked a majority of votes in the Federation Council, has repeatedly called Sergei Mironov to decide - is he in opposition to it and to the leader of the party United Russia, Vladimir Putin or not. Once again, the question was put to Miranda in March 2007, while approving him for the new term as a member of the Federation Council from the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg. Although the EP in the newly elected Sachs IV, had no majority (23 seats out of 50), spravedlivorossy (13 seats), bloc with the Communist Party (9 seats) and Liberal Democratic Party (5 seats) convocation did not work, and payment for the re-election of Mironov, the Federation Council was the support of a faction Fair Russia by the leader of the local United Russia Vadim Tyulpanov for the post of speaker.
Next strained relations SR - ER happened in February 2010. Mironov's words on air of the First Channel about the disagreement with the government's budget and Putin's anti-crisis program and that "we and I personally support Putin in everything - is already outdated information" caused resentment among the leaders of the UR's Executive Committee Andrei Vorobyov and Andrei Isayev. "We will not tolerate it when a person tells us one thing during the appointment, and now makes personal attacks against the chairman of our party." - said Vorobyov. February 8, 2010, the differences between the United Russia and Fair Russia were settled during the signing of the following political agreement:
between the "United All-Russian political party
RUSSIA"and the Political Party FAIR RUSSI
All-Russian political party "UNITED RUSSIA" and the Political party FAIR RUSSIA aware of its responsibility to the people for ensuring effective socio-economic and socio-political development of Russia, have entered into this Agreement:
1. The parties to the Agreement - "The UNITED RUSSIA" and "FAIR RUSSIA" - agree to strive for coalition activities when discussing and implementing national tasks
2. The FAIR RUSSIA Political Party supports the strategic course of the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev, the President of the Russian Federation and the Chairman of The UNITED RUSSIA Party Vladimir Putin on strategic issues of foreign policy, national security, constitutional order, rejection of extremism, supporting corresponding legislative initiatives during their consideration in the legislative bodies at all government levels. At the same time All-Russian political party "UNITED RUSSIA" considers it appropriate to find SM Mironov as Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly, in which the majority of the members are representatives of the political party "UNITED RUSSIA".
3. The resulting differences are discussed in the parties civilized inter-party discussions, including the use of the media.
4. Members of the agreement are willing to act together in dealing with personnel issues in the government's cabinets and local self-government, including the results of the elections by the conclusion of agreements in the formation of package of the governing structures.
However, at a joint press conference with Boris Gryzlov, where this agreement was announced, Sergei Mironov made a reservation of four points. "The first point: the party 'Fair Russia' is and will be in opposition to the 'United Russia' party." The second, third and fourth paragraphs refer to friendly relations with Prime Minister Putin, Mironov (claim 2), in which some people are trying to drive a wedge (item 3), and the fact that Putin was leading the party United Russia, is at the same time, non-partisan (4).
May 2011, the St. Petersburg Legislative Assembly decided to prematurely withdraw Mironov from the Federation Council. By that time, the State Duma backtracked on an amendment made during Mironov's time, on the formation of the Federation Council and the status of its members, which allowed senators to withdraw prematurely only on the initiative of the Chairman of the Federation Council. Already it has been canceled and the procedure of termination of senators power by the decision of the House - is now recognized as the senators appointed and dismissed from the moment of the decision without a vote in the region in the Federation Council.
The initiator of Mironov's withdrawal was the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly Vadim Tul'panov, who on May 1, 2011, accused Mironov of speaking of St. Petersburg as a corrupt city, and of insufficiently zealous defense of the interests of the city on the federal level. On May 18, 2011 the decision to withdraw was made by 43 deputies of the Legislative Assembly of 50, that is, not only factions ER, the CPRF and the LDPR, and eight (of 13) members of the faction Fair Russia, which broke with the party, but by virtue of legislation, continued to play a decisive role in the faction politics in Legislative Assembly.
May 25, 2011, Sergey Mironov addressed the Federation Council with a farewell, a parting word, being no more a member of the Parliament, but a former member of the Federation Council. From that day until the election of the ex-governor of St. Petersburg Valentina Matvienko (UR) the new Chairman of the Federation Council on September 21, 2011, this post in the Federation Council was held by the First Vice-Speaker Alexander Torshin (UR).
Soon Sergey Mironov moved from the Federation Council to the State Duma, getting his deputy mandate in the list of "Fair Russia" from Elena Vtorygina (Arkhangelsk region). On June 8 Central Election Commission registered Mironov as a deputy, and on June 14 he became the leader of the FR faction in the State Duma instead of the resigned Nicholas Levichev.
From the life of the party
At the IV Congress of June 25, 2009, the party "Fair Russia" has got rid of the prefix "Rodina/Pensioners/Life" in the title. At the time of the congress of the party consisted of 297 regional deputies, of the 2011 municipal deputies and 70 mayors.
At the V Congress of April 16, 2011, Sergei Mironov conceded the post of party chairman to Nikolay Levichev. After the adoption of the law, which required political parties to establish regular rotation of their leaders, at the same congress the Party Constitution was amended so that the chairman of the party could no longer hold this post for more than 5 of the two and a half year consecutive terms (ie 12.5 years). The requirement does not apply to rotation of the party leader, who is now Sergei Mironov. This post is not mentioned at all at the party statute.
Mironov simultaneously became a member of the Bureau of the Presidium of the Party and the President of the Chamber of Deputies of the Council (Chamber of Deputies - the set of deputies of all levels - from the Council of the Federation to the municipal councils - who are the members of the party, except for those who had withdrawn himself or herself). In the latter capacity the right has to convene the Congress, include issues on its agenda, to preside over the Congress, the Central Council, the Presidium and the Bureau, to suspend the powers of the chairman of the party and any member of the Central Council, the Presidium and the Bureau, to suspend the decisions of the Central Council, the Presidium and the Bureau, if they are contrary to the chairman of Chamber's decisions. But he can only suspend the party chairman's decisions, if they are contrary to the decisions of collegiate bodies of the party.
Regional elections 2008-2011
Of the 54 regional campaigns in March 2008 - March 2011 the party had put forward the lists in 53 cases. In the Yaroslavl region the party was not allowed to participate in the elections by the court, which proclaimed the records of the gatherings for region conference's delegates' nomination forged.
In 44 regions, including the "complicated" ones like Chechnya, Ingushetia and the Kemerovo, the party got candidates under the proportional system, in 1 region (Karachaevo-Cherkessia) - a single-seat deputy. However, in the Kemerovo Region Fair Russia did not overcome the 7 percent barrier and won a "consolation" mandate as a runner-up (federal legislation established a "floating barrier", which, in case only one party passes the parliament, provides the mandates are divided proportionally between it and the party runner-up regardless of the percentage of votes it gained).
In 8 cases, the party in the regional parliaments failed. They were Bashkortostan, Kalmykia, Mari El, Tatarstan, Amur, Rostov region, Sverdlovsk region (2008) and Moscow.
In this case the party lost none of its 26 campaigns from 2010 to 2011.
Already in 2009, the SP Party surpassed the Liberal Democratic Party in the number of seats in the regional legislative assemblies (5.5% vs. 4% of the total), but it still lagged behind in the number of regions where it has been presented (49 vs. 57). By the summer of 2011, UR is represented in 63 regions, while the Liberal Democratic Party - only in 60. And if you add 6 regions, where SAR and /or RPJ are still represented - that will be 69 against 60. The total number of regional deputies from the party - 265 (6.71%), and with the addition of Deputies RPL and RPP - 292 (7.4%).
The number of municipal deputies from the party - about 4,000, mayors - 135 (April 2010).
June 30, 2008, the party was granted observer status in the Socialist International, which previously was sought by its predecessor - the Rodina Party - in vain.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe deputies and senators from the Just Russia faction enter the Socialists faction.
September 21, 2011, with the participation of Dmitry Rogozin, the founding congress of the movement "Rodina-Congress of Russian Communities" took place, on which the organizing committee for the restoration of the party "Rodina" was created. Dmitry Rogozin accused the leader of the party "Fair Russia" Sergei Mironov of raider seizure of the party "Rodina".
September 24, the VI Party Congress put forward a list of 600 candidates to the State Duma (at the time of registration - 584). It was headed by Sergei Mironov, Nikolai Levichev and Oksana Dmitrieva. In the top eight (not ten!) - Deputies Alexander Lomakin-Rumyantsev, Ivan Grachev, Elena Drapeko as well as political strategist Leonid Levin and the Chairman of "The Gardeners of Russia" organization Andrey Tumanov. In total the list consists of 33 current deputies of the Duma from the party JR (the remaining 5 - in the list of "United Russia"), as well as deputy from the Liberal Democratic Party Dzhamaladin Hasanov (2nd in the Rostov region). Almost all Just Russia deputies who were not included in the federal elite, headed regional lists of exceptions - Valery Chereshnev (2nd place in half of the Sverdlovsk region) and Semyon Bagdasarov - 5th place in Dagestan). The lists of two senators - Hovhannes Ohanyan and Alexei Lysyakov, former Senator Galina Buslova. St. Petersburg group is led by the head of the regional branch of the party Oleg Nilov, three Moscow groups - deputies Gennady Gudkov and Galina Khovanskaya, as well as the chairman of the charity fund Alexander Ageev.
The party's result on the elections - 13.24% and 64 mandates in the Duma.
The fraction in the State Duma of the VI convocation was headed by Sergei Mironov, vice-speaker from the faction was Nikolai Levichev, representatives of the CP led four committees: for science - Valery Chereshnev, energy - Ivan Grachev, for family, women and children - Elena Mizulina, for housing - Galina Khovanskaya.
Speaking at the State Duma, Sergey Mironov supported the requirement for early re-election of the Duma.
The party has put forward lists in the regional elections of December 4th, 2011 in all 27 regions, but in Mordovia did not apply for registration list, citing the pressure of the local authorities. In the other 26 regions the party lists overcame the percent barrier and passed in the legislature.
Elections - 2012
December 10, 2011, the VI congress put forward Sergey Mironov as a presidential candidate. Mironov strongly dissociates himself from the parallels with 2004, when he was, as he now admits himself, a 'technical candidate' - Putin's "understudy". Before the Congress the idea to nominate Oksana Dmitrieva as the candidate from the Party, which, according to supporters of this measure, would have allowed her to become the common candidate for the left forces (FR and the Communist Party) and even reach the second round, was discussed in the media and the Internet (mostly - not by members of the party). Congress did not examine Dmitrieva's candidature, and Mironov promised in case of victory in the elections to appoint her as prime minister.
Sergei Mironov took part in the presidential election and took fifth place (five candidates participated, there wasn't the column "against all").
2012 - 2016
In 2012-2014, people left or were expelled from "Fair Russia" who took active part in the white ribbon protest: in particular, Gennady and Dmitry Gudkovs and Ilya Ponomarev.
In October 2013, the party held a congress at which the informal leader of "Fair Russia" Sergei Mironov became its formal leader. After this the assessment of the party's foreign policy began to coincide with the state's and the Duma's (such as the events in Crimea and the Ukraine).
On April 23, 2016, a congress approved the party's program for five years and re-elected all the governing bodies.
In the parliamentary elections of 2016, Sergey Mironov, the party list has been divided into 50 groups, the party joined a number of MPs from the "United Russia" and "Liberal Democratic Party". Also, the party was able to negotiate with the "United Russia" not about the nomination of the last number of candidates in single-member districts, which claimed spravorossy.